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It is also recorded that French soldiers were issued with Tarot packs during the Franco-Prussian War , First World War and Algerian War , leading in each case to the spread of le jeu de Tarot throughout France according to Dummett and Berloquin.
In 18th century France, Tarot cards first became associated with fortune telling, a practice that spread to much of the Western world.
However, the cards preferred for divination are the older Italian-suited packs or bespoke modern designs, which have occultic symbology, rather than the packs with scenes of everyday life like the French Tarot Nouveau and Austro-Hungarian Industrie und Glück packs.
The game of tarot is played using a card tarot deck. This deck is composed of:. Three cards known as oudlers "honors" are of particular importance in the game: the 1 of trumps le petit or "Little one" , the 21 of trumps le monde or "The World", a holdover from the name of this card in the Tarot of Marseilles , and the Excuse the Fool.
These cards, when captured by the high bidder, lower the point threshold needed to fulfill the contract. In colloquial French, oudlers are often referred to as bouts ends.
The ranking of the hearts, clubs, diamonds and spades from the top is: King, Queen, Knight, Jack, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 Ace.
As an aside, the trumps and Fool can be removed to yield a card deck very similar to a card French deck but with the additional Cavalier knight, lit.
This deck configuration, plus the Fool, was copied using culture-neutral card designs and values to create the deck for the Rook game.
The only card with a special effect is the "Fool", L'Excuse. The Excuse may be played on any trick; it "excuses" the player from following suit.
However, it normally doesn't win the trick. The card also normally remains the property of the person who played it, not the winner of that trick; to compensate for this in the scoring count, the owner of the Excuse should instead give the winner of the trick a half-point card a trump other than an oudler , or a suited number card; see Scoring from his or her score pile.
If the side has taken all previous tricks, the card takes the last trick; if not, it changes hands to the other side, even if the trick is won by a partner or fellow defender of the person playing it.
For 3 or 4 players 5 with a simple variation. The 4-player variant is usually considered the most challenging and is the one played in competitions.
The following rules are for 4 players. All trumps rank higher than any suited card; anyone who draws the Fool must redraw.
From this point, the deal will pass to the right counterclockwise for each subsequent deal. The player at the left of the dealer cuts the deck.
The dealer then deals out the entire deck, counter-clockwise, starting with the player on their right. Each player is dealt their cards in "packets" of three consecutive cards at a time they will each receive 6 such packets for a total of 18 cards.
In addition, a chien lit. A card may be dealt to the dog at any time, but the dealer may not:. A maldonne misdeal occurs when the dealer makes mistakes in the dealing; if this happens, the hand is redealt, either by the same dealer or the next in rotation.
Players inspect, sort and evaluate their hands, and then move on to the bidding round. A player in possession of the Petit 1 of trump but neither any other trump nor the Fool must announce this fact; the hand is voided and this round will be redealt by the next dealer.
The players look at the cards they have been dealt, and an auction begins, starting from the player to the right of the dealer, as all action proceeds counter-clockwise.
By bidding, a player states their confidence that they will be able to meet a set contract see below and sets the terms by which they will try to do so.
If a player does not wish to bid, they may "pass" but may not bid after having passed previously. One may only bid higher than the previous bidders.
The preneur "taker", sometimes called "declarer" as in Bridge is the one who wins this auction; they must try to meet the contract while all other players form the "defense" and attempt to prevent the taker from doing so.
The level of player's bid is based on the strength of their hand, usually estimated by counting the points within it.
See evaluating one's hand below for a method to determine the points within one's hand. On a prise , pousse or garde , the taker may not set aside a king or a trump, except that if the player cannot discard anything else, they may discard a non- oudler trump.
An oudler may never be set aside. In earlier rules, still played outside of competitions, in place of the prise and simple garde , there were two bids, in increasing importance: the petite small and the pousse push.
The prise is still sometimes known as petite. There are also some players who play without the prise contract, with garde as the minimum allowable bid.
The player to the right of the dealer leads the first trick, and the play proceeds counter-clockwise, with every player playing a card from his hand to the trick.
Tricks are evaluated in a similar fashion as other trick-taking games with a trump suit; the highest trump, if played, takes the trick, and if trump is not played, the highest-value card of the led suit takes the trick.
Every subsequent trick is led by the player who took the last trick. Long before occultists envisioned the spiritual roots of the Tarot, it was a popular card game in Europe.
In France and French Canada, Tarot is still popular as a card game today. French Tarot is a player trick-capturing game like Bridge , Spades , and Euchre , but the 4-player version is considered the best.
The cards in French Tarot decks more closely resemble regular playing cards , with the addition of course of the 21 trumps and the Fool , here known as the Excuse.
Another trick-capturing card game based on the game of Tarot called Skat became popular in Germany. The Skat deck is a card deck that consists of the cards 7, 8, 9, 10, jack, queen, king and ace of the 4 suits.
Skat is played with 3 or 4 players. The taker's objective is to accumulate enough card points to win the hand by taking tricks.
It's easiest to count them in pairs, grouping each court card or bout with a 0. The total of the card points is The number of points the taker needs to win depends on the number of bouts the taker has in his tricks:.
The first dealer is chosen at random - thereafter the turn to deal passes to the right after each hand the whole game is played counter-clockwise.
The player opposite the dealer shuffles and the player to the left of the dealer cuts. In a hand, 18 cards are dealt to each player, in packets of 3.
During the deal, six cards are dealt face down to the centre of the table to form the talon or chien "le chien" literally means "the dog", but maybe a better English equivalent is "kitty", since this word is used in other card games for a group of cards set aside during the deal.
The chien cards are dealt singly at any time during the deal, at the choice of the dealer, except that the first three and the last three cards of the deck cannot be dealt to the chien.
A player who is dealt only the 1 of trumps and no others counting the excuse as a trump immediately declares this and the hand is cancelled - the cards are thrown in and the next dealer deals.
Each player, starting with the player to the dealer's right and continuing counter-clockwise, has just one chance to bid on the hand, or pass.
If someone bids, subsequent players have the choice of bidding higher or passing. If all four players pass, the hand is thrown in and the next dealer deals this happens quite often.
The highest bidding player becomes the taker. The remaining three players form a temporary team, trying to prevent the bidder from making enough card points.
In Petite or Garde, the taker turns the six cards of the chien face up for all to see and then takes them into his hand.
He then discards face down any six cards which must not include trumps, kings or the excuse. In the very rare case that the taker can't obey this rule, he can discard trumps but never bouts ; any trumps discarded must be shown to the other players.
The cards discarded by the taker count as part of his tricks. When the discard is complete, the cards are played. The player to the dealer's right leads to the first trick.
Each trick is won by the highest trump in it, or the highest card of the suit led if no trumps were played. The winner of a trick leads to the next.
You have to follow suit if you can, and if you have no cards of the suit which was led you must play a trump. If trumps are led, the other players must of course follow with trumps if they can.
There is a further restriction: whenever you have to play a trump either because trumps were led or because you have no cards of the suit which was led , you must if possible play a trump which is higher than the highest trump so far played to the trick.
If you are unable to do this, you are free to play any trump, but you must still play a trump, even though you cannot win the trick with it.
The excuse is an exception to the above rules. If you hold the excuse you may play it to any trick you choose - irrespective of what was led and whether you have that suit or not.
With one rare exception see below , the excuse can never win the trick - the trick is won as usual by the highest trump, or in the absence of trumps by the highest card of the suit led.
It is legal to lead the excuse, and in this case the second player to the trick can play any card, and this second card defines what suit must be followed.
Provided that the excuse is played before the last trick, the team that played the excuse keeps it in their trick pile, even though they may have lost the trick to which it was played.
If the trick is in fact won by the opponents of the player of the excuse, the trick will be one card short; to compensate for this, the team that played the excuse must transfer one card from their trick pile to the winners of the trick.
This will be a 0. If the excuse is played in the last trick, the excuse is taken by the team who wins the trick.
They say that if the Excuse is played to the last trick it changes sides. So according to the FFT rule, if an opponent of the bidder plays the Excuse to the last trick, the declarer captures the Excuse even if he does not win the trick.
There is just one extremely rare case in which the excuse can win a trick: if one team has won every trick except the last one, and then leads the excuse to the last trick the excuse wins.
There are some special bonuses. The scores for these bonuses are not card points, so they do not help you to win your bid.